Most independent creators overlook monitoring and video color management. Here is a complete low budget DaVinci Resolve monitoring solution for under $2200.
Color is critical to bringing your vision and story to life on any screen. The challenge is there are so many screens to cater for. An image can look different on displays from different manufacturers, as well as different types of display and display technologies.
Even when the video standard and technical requirements are the same, you can never be sure your audience is seeing the artistic intent of your creative decisions.
DaVinci Resolve External Monitor
The best you can do is make sure you’re grading on a calibrated reference display in a optimal environment. Your DaVinci Resolve suite needs to be providing a video signal to a calibrated external monitor. Your primary desktop monitor, or a second extended desktop computer monitor is not going to cut it.
Typically this has been, and still can be, an expensive proposition. Reference displays can run to tens of thousands of dollars, especially those suitable for HDR mastering.
True color critical HDR monitoring is completely unaffordable for most. However, it is now possible to set up professional DaVinci Resolve monitoring for Rec.709 for a few thousand dollars. This is possible using an LG OLED television and a few other bits and pieces of hardware and software.
If the term Rec.709 doesn’t mean anything to you, I recommend you read my articles below.
What is Video Color Management?
The term color management sounds intimidating but the concept behind it is simple. The goal is simply to manage the representation of color from capture to display. This is to ensure that the audience sees the image as closely as possible to what was intended.
Managing color though this pipeline involves correcting any changes and shifts that can creep in between capture and display.
Color correcting captured video happens easily enough in color correction software, such as DaVinci Resolve. This is achieved by correcting the image so that certain reference values (such as those from a color chart) match up to target values on a waveform and vectorscope. These scopes can be software or hardware. However, the accuracy of video displayed on a external monitor is dependent on the correct video signal, and employing a monitor able to reproduce the correct values on screen.
The cost of the hardware and software needed to manage the video at each point in the pipeline is now more affordable than ever before. This is largely thanks to Blackmagic Design for democratizing professional color correction by making DaVinci Resolve free for everyone. The improvement of consumer display technology in recent years makes accurate low budget Resolve monitoring possible.
There are the main considerations I will break down.
Video Color Management During Capture
A complete color managed workflow starts with the camera. Light is emitted from a light source, and reflects off objects in the scene into the camera lens. This light is focused onto the image sensor in the camera.
The image sensor is a vast array of microscopic light sensitive photosites. A pattern of red, green and blue colored filters is employed in order to record, and later reconstruct color information. This pattern is called a Bayer Color Filter Array (CFA).
The light passes through the color filter array and is converted into an electrical charge in each photosite. From this point, real world photons of light are recorded as a voltage. The voltage at each photosite is encoded into digital values that represent the entire image.
The camera processes this raw image data, and finally records it to a file. This may be raw image data, along with camera metadata, or it may be highly processed and compressed.
The Camera is Not Perfect
Either way, there will always be a difference between the light that exposed the camera sensor, and the digital representation of that light recorded to a video file. The camera system as a whole, including the lens, as well as encoding and image processing have introduced changes in the recorded image.
The first step in a color managed workflow is to measure the change, in the form of any slight offset to color or levels the camera has introduced and counter it with an exact opposite offset.
The offset introduced by the camera system first has to be precisely measured. This is accomplished simply by shooting a physical color chart such as the X-Rite ColorChecker Passport Video. A video color chart, when illuminated and exposed correctly provides a range of important recorded reference values.
A typical video color chart includes precise color reference for white (at 90% reflectance), middle grey (at 18% reflectance), black, primary and secondary colors (red, green, blue, yellow, cyan, magenta) and usually a lot more. The chart is manufactured with precise hue, saturation and reflectance values for each color chip.
When the recorded values for each of these color chips in a video file is compared to the known real world target values indicated on a waveform and vectorscope, the difference between them is the offset, shift or change that the camera system has introduced. This can then be corrected out of the image.
The term “scopes” refers to a number of specific tools that display a visual representation of video image information. Typically these include the waveform, parade, RGB parade and vectorscope.
A waveform plots image luminance (brightness) values on the horizontal axis (from the left to right) against a vertical scale from 0 to 100%. Black is indicated at 0 and pure white is indicated at 100%. Often the vertical scale may also show 10-bit encoded values from 0 to 1024.
The parade scope separates RGB color components. It plots red, green and blue luminance (brightness) values on the horizontal axis against a vertical scale from 0 to 100% just like the waveform.
A vectorscope is a 360 degree circular representation of image hue and saturation values. Hue is measured around the outside edge of the circle, in degrees, and saturation is plotted from 0 (no saturation) at the center outwards as saturation increases. In addition, primary and secondary color targets are indicated by boxes at the precise intersection of hue and saturation for each. A line indicating correct skin tone hue is also often shown.
Dedicated Scope Software
ScopeBox by Divergent Media is a highly accurate dedicated scope software. It can be run on the same system as your NLE or color grading software, or on a second PC or Mac, equipped with a video input interface.
The software scopes built into DaVinci Resolve are good enough. If your system is closer to the minimum hardware requirements to run Resolve, I wouldn’t advise running ScopeBox on the same machine. However, if you have sufficient system resources to run both, ScopeBox will give you a more accurate and feature rich toolset.
Of course dedicating a separate machine to run ScopeBox is ideal. Then it doesn’t take system resources away from Resolve. This could be an older PC or something like a Mac Mini. All that is required is a video input interface, such as the Blackmagic Design Ultrastudio Mini Recorder (Thunderbolt 3) or Blackmagic Design Decklink Mini Recorder (PCIe card).
Low Budget HD and 4K Video Interfaces
Correcting any change introduced by the camera is only half of this story. The second half has to do with correcting any change introduced by the display. Just as no camera is perfect, there is no perfect display either. There will always be small shifts in levels and color that need to be corrected out of the display.
Of course you may get away with seeing the image you are correcting on a laptop display or the desktop display of a PC for some time. This is how many of us start our journeys learning the tools, but it’s important to realize that you aren’t looking at a correct picture. This can affect your final output and deliverables that will be viewed on other displays and devices.
Video displayed by your computer on the GUI display is not the same as a dedicated video output. Instead, you will need to buy a separate video interface to drive your external Resolve monitor. This is either a PCIe card that slots into your PC motherboard, or an external interface that plugs into your system via Thunderbolt. The video interface provides the correct video output at the correct video resolution in the correct color space.
The most cost effective video interfaces are made by Blackmagic Design and AJA.
HD Video Output
For HD monitoring via Thunderbolt, the Blackmagic Design Ultrastudio Mini Monitor will do the job at only USD $160. The internal PCIe card version is the Blackmagic Design Decklink Mini Monitor also at USD $160. These interfaces give you 10-bit video output over SDI and HDMI. I’ve put some buy links at the end of the article.
4K Video Output
For 4K monitoring via Thunderbolt, the price jumps up to $995 for the Blackmagic Design Ultrastudio 4K Mini, so this adds considerably to your total investment. Adding an internal 4K output card to a PC is much cheaper at $195 for the Blackmagic Design Decklink Mini Monitor 4K.
In the same way the inaccuracies introduced by the camera can be corrected by shooting a video color chart and lining up the values on a waveform and vectorscope, it is also possible to objectively measure the inaccuracies of a display and generate a correction transform. This correction transform is known as a calibration LUT. A LUT stands for Look Up Table, which is a 2D or 3D transform that defines how input values are remapped to different output values.
Depending on your monitor, a dedicated LUT box may be required to apply the monitor calibration LUT. This is a standalone device connected between the video interface and the monitor.
The most affordable HD LUT box as of 2019 is the AJA LUT-box at USD $695. The AJA LUT-box provides SDI input and both SDI and HDMI output. It supports 3D LUTs at 17x17x17 at 12-bit processing in .lut, .txt, .3dl, .cube file formats.
A LUT box capable of processing a 4K image is considerably more expensive. The TVLogic IS-mini4K costs $2385 and the Flanders Scientific BoxIO is $1295. Two BoxIO are needed to process 4K at over 30p (up to 60p), but one advantage of the BoxIO is the built in scopes that can be output to a separate display.
The best low budget DaVinci Resolve monitor I’m going to suggest below is the LG OLED C8 or C9 which actually has the ability to load a LUT into the TV itself, so a separate LUT box is not required. This is a big cost saving, especially if you choose to output 4K and want to monitor 4K images.
The Best Low Budget Resolve Monitor is an LG OLED TV
Your choice of display is the most critical part of your Resolve monitoring pipeline. It’s also the most expensive. However, you don’t have to shell out for a high end professional reference monitor if your work will largely be for standard dynamic range (SDR) Rec.709 delivery.
As of 2018 one of the best low budget Resolve monitors you could buy for Rec.709 color correction was the LG C8 OLED TV in 55″ and 65″ sizes. This has been replaced by the 2019 C9 models which have a new alpha 9 generation 2 processor. The LG C9 OLED TV’s can also generate test patterns for calibration. These displays have great quality OLED panels, although they are RGB vs the WRGB of the professional reference displays costing ten times more.
The panel is good enough to be calibrated for Rec.709 work, and LG have catered to high end consumer allowing a calibration LUT to be loaded directly in the TV.
The LG OLED TV’s have been adopted widely by professional post facilities as client viewing monitors. Many colorists are also using them successfully as primary reference grading monitors for Rec.709 work.
It’s important to note that while these are HDR televisions, they are not suitable as primary reference monitors for HDR grading work. The LG OLEDs are still consumer displays and don’t meet the requirements for HDR mastering.
Simply plugging in a good OLED TV, even if you are feeding it the correct video signal from a video output interface, doesn’t mean you’re seeing the correct image. The last shift, or offset that needs to be removed from the video pipeline is introduced by the display itself. The signal being fed to the display is not necessarily exactly what you’re seeing because of image processing in the display, and slight inaccuracies in the panel.
The most important part of all of this is to calibrate your Resolve monitor properly. In principle this is the same as correcting camera color inaccuracies.
In the case of display calibration, a pattern generator takes the place of the color chart. The pattern generator feeds a test signal to the display. A device called a colorimeter is placed on the surface of the display and precisely measures the light output by the display.
Calibration software calculates the difference between the values measured by the colorimeter and the target values from the pattern generator. The difference is the precise offset that must be removed in order to correct the display. The software measures this difference across the profile of the display and creates a calibration LUT.
In the case of the LG C9 OLED display, this calibration LUT can be loaded directly into the monitor, which means an external LUT box is not necessary.
Here’s what you’ll need.
Calman Home for LG
The calibration software is called Calman Home for LG, made by Portrait Displays, the makers of the most trusted professional display calibration solutions. Calman Home for LG runs on Windows only, so you will need a PC for the calibration process.
I’m not going to take you through the steps to calibrate the LG display in this article. You can follow the full walkthrough at the link below, and also watch the tutorial video.
X-Rite i1Display Pro
Colorimeters can run into thousands of dollars. The X-Rite i1Display Pro is the most cost effective option that is compatible with the Calman Home software. It’s useful for calibrating a wide range of displays so it’s an investment that will serve you beyond just calibrating the LG OLED monitor.
How to Set Up Your Resolve Grading Environment
With the USD $2200 setup I’ve described you can remove any color offset in the image pipeline all the way from camera lens to display. However, the last step is to manage the element of human vision and perception.
The way to make sure the eyes and brain perceive the colors of the display correctly is to remove any outside influence. The color of the walls, light from windows, and artificial lighting in the room can all affect how you perceive color. Ideally the walls should be painted 18% grey and the ceiling should be painted non-reflective black.
18% Grey Paint
eCinema Systems also make a SLS-01 bias light. This light can be placed behind the monitor but you can make use of any dimmable, high CRI (90+) 6500K LED light. It should be dimmed to about 20% of the brightness of the monitor. Make sure any other lights in the room are also high CRI lamps at 6500K color temperature, preferably even all of the same type, from the same manufacturer.
Investing a few thousand dollars in calibrated Resolve monitoring and color management may sound like a lot. But it’s a tenth of what was required a few years ago before consumer OLED TV’s became as good as they are now.
Is it worth it? If you are learning or creating content only for yourself and are happy with your results, perhaps not. However, if you start freelancing as a colorist, or color grading commercial work for others, it’s absolutely necessary. It’s an investment in the service you provide to your customers, adds value and elevates your work and your skills.
Buy DaVinci Resolve Monitoring Gear
I’ve created a checklist with average pricing as of December 2019 based around the 2019 55″ LG C9 OLED TV and a HD video output interface. The total investment should be just less than USD $2200.
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