NOTE: As with all things tech, change happens quickly. Please keep in mind this was written and published in August 2016. DaVinci Resolve has changed, hardware has changed. Resolve now handles these codecs much more efficiently, but in some cases, on some systems, it still struggles with real-time playback.
There is no magical way to ensure real-time playback of XAVC-S (or any complex H.264 based format) natively in DaVinci Resolve, but I do want to explain the reasons why you might be experiencing poor playback performance so it’s easier to accept and embrace the solution.
What is XAVC?
Sony’s XAVC (and its little brother XAVC-S) are very efficient compressed video formats, enabling high quality video encoding in low to intermediate bit-rates and small file sizes. XAVC and XAVC-S are based on the H.264 codec with uncompressed LPCM audio.
A wrapper is the container for audio and video data. It is where your video file extension comes from… .mov, .avi, .mxf, .mp4 etc. XAVC uses the MXF wrapper, and XAVC-S uses MP4 wrapper, but the video inside is still H.264.
The H.264 codec is a very flexible codec for efficient video encoding. It comes in a number of profiles which can accommodate different capabilities when it comes to color bit-depth, chroma sub-sampling, resolution, and intra or inter-frame compression. Sony make use of the “high” profile levels 5.1 and 5.2 which have had some compatibility issues with common decoders.
XAVC / XAVC-S / H.264 and DaVinci Resolve
DaVinci Resolve has a long history, with it’s origins dating back to the early 1980’s as da Vinci Systems, long before the technology was bought by Blackmagic Design in 2009.
DaVinci has always been a high-end color correction and finishing system. It was designed primarily for performance with uncompressed video sources and media. This has changed and the system has evolved to be far more flexible and inclusive of all kinds of compressed and uncompressed media, but it is important to keep in mind Resolve’s heritage. Resolve is not exactly like your other NLE’s and it doesn’t process image data in quite the same way.
CPU and GPU
Any discussion of performance in DaVinci Resolve is always spoken about in close connection with the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). However the decoding of source media is tasked to the CPU, not the GPU. It is important to understand the internal processing pipeline involved. Resolve first must decompress and decode the source media into its uncompressed 32-bit floating point YRGB space regardless of source media color space, color bit-depth or chroma sub sampling scheme.
In the case of H.264 this is a computationally intensive task. In order for Resolve to play back your XAVC or XAVC-S (or AVCHD for that matter) at full resolution in real-time, your system CPU must be capable of decoding and expanding the video data into 32-bit float YRGB space in memory in real-time. This is a vast amount of data to generate, from scratch, on the fly. It’s all down to your CPU to decompress, decode and then generate all this data.
We also talk about storage read bandwidth, and this is very important with less compressed media, but it is not the bottleneck preventing your system from playing back your H.264 based media in real-time. The file sizes are small, and do not require the same read-speed from storage as less compressed, larger formats.
Why Your System Handles Uncompressed Media and Struggles with H.264
So you’ve built or bought a monster workstation with a SSD RAID and maybe it’s equipped with one (or a few) Titan-X GPUs. It eats through uncompressed DPX files like a hot knife through butter and even churns through 6K R3D without breaking a sweat. Why not H.264?
The simple answer is with uncompressed media, RAW, and compressed formats that are easier for your CPU to decode (yes… even 6K R3D is easier on your CPU) the CPU can more easily take the data being read from disk, decompress and with or without the help of GPU, generate the required 32-bit float YRGB image data fast enough for further real-time image processing and playback at your full frame rate. In the case of RAW formats, the GPU handles the debayering once the CPU has dealt with any decompression.
So, it’s a CPU + GPU dance, and depending on the type of media, one may do more work than the other.
In the case of H.264, it’s pretty much all on the CPU. Your GPU is being held up waiting for your CPU to decode and generate the required frames. It just can’t compute it all quickly enough.
H.264 Is Not Really A Post-Friendly Codec
The fact of the matter is XAVC and XAVC-S, or AVCHD, or any other similar format is very efficient for encoding video data into small file sizes. It is not however easy or quick to decode for high-quality finishing and post production processing.
What you can do, is transcode your source media to a finishing format which Resolve is able to process far more quickly. These files then become your master media. Apple ProRes is a great general purpose format for this, as is Avid DNxHD or DNxHR and as long as you are transcoding up to a less compressed format, in the same or greater color bit-depth and chroma sub sampling level, you should not be losing any image quality as a result. You certainly won’t be gaining any quality either, as you can’t magically extract any more information than was recorded, all you are doing here is creating files Resolve will more easily process. Here’s a guide of possible transcode formats to consider.
- Apple ProRes 422 HQ – for source media of 8 or 10-bit color depth, 4:2:0 or 4:2:2
- Apple ProRes 4444 / 4444 XQ – for source media of 10-bit color depth or more, 4:4:4, suitable for HDR
- Avid DNxHD 220 – for source media of 8-bit color depth, 4:2:0 or 4:2:2
- Avid DNxHD 220x – for source media of 10-bit color depth, 4:2:2
- Avid DNxHD 444 – for source media of 10-bit color depth, 4:4:4
- Avid DNxHR HQX – for source media of 8 or 10-bit color depth, 4:2:2 or 4:2:0
- Avid DNxHR 444 – for source media of 10-bit color depth or more, 4:4:4, suitable for HDR
The resulting transcoded media should have the same timecode as the source media as well as the same filename and this will be the case with most methods of generating transcoded media, only the file extension will have changed. The resulting files will be larger, but since all the decoding of the H.264 has been done, Resolve no longer has to rely on the CPU to do it in real-time.
DaVinci Resolve Optimized Media
If you don’t want to transcode all of your source media before brining it into Resolve, a better option is to use Resolve’s built in Optimized Media tool. DaVinci Resolve gives you the option of generating optimized media directly from clips in the media pool and it handles all the internal linking of files between your original camera files and the optimized media, allowing you to switch between camera media and optimized media in your timeline. You can set the resolution and format for the optimized media in the General panel of the Project Settings.
There are a number of formats to choose from, but keep in mind your storage configuration when you select one. Resolve stores optimized media on the same scratch disk it stores render cache files, so if you intend to make uncompressed optimized media, you’ll need to make sure you’ve specified a location on very fast storage for these files.
Resolve lets you make optimized media in any flavor of Apple ProRes from “Proxy” up to 4444 XQ as well as Avid DNxHR LB through 444. You also have the option of making Uncompressed 10-bit or Uncompressed 16-bit float media which is stored in Resolve’s own .dvcc image format.
Transcoding Is The Solution
At the moment, transcoding your media before bringing it into Resolve, or generating optimized media within Resolve is your solution for best performance when using XAVC, XAVC-S, AVCHD or any H.264 based codec.
It’s just not a post production ready codec, and you need to be working in a more robust format which is faster to decode and process.
It is what it is, and transcoding comes with the territory if you’re shooting in these formats.